This is just similar in construction to the coursed rubble masonry III sorts except that no mortar is used in the joints. This section describes the historic background and analyzes the current possibilities and limitations of rubble stone masonry, following the criteria as described in this chapter. NBC 105:1994 (2007). Uncoursed rubble masonry a) Uncoursed random rubble masonry: The weak corners and edges are removed with mason’s hammer. Stab. Stones are arranged at random in Random Rubble Masonry. – Type of floors and roofs: Wooden floors and wood-trussed roofs, as opposed to concrete slabs. Here the further two sub types are,Coursed random rubble and Uncoursed random rubble. Boletín Oficial del Estado n.30, February 4 of 1969, Madrid. Gazzetta Ufficiale n.95 del 22 Aprile 1909, Rome. Design Codes (in English), plus amendment N 126-N (in Armenian). Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant Design, Construction and Retrofitting of Buildings in Afghanistan. Interestingly, for both URM (NRM) and CM, no seismic verifications are needed according to the Iranian seismic code. Answer to your 2nd question: When we talk about the design of retaining wall then it should be accurately done as per the local water agency and local municipality. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal. As early as the Quetta Building Code of 1937 [QBC-1937 (1937)], developed after the very heavy and damaging 1935 Quetta earthquake (then part of the British Indian Empire), it is clearly stated that “dry masonry without mortar is strictly forbidden and stone boulders may on no account be used.” This statement is repeated in the Quetta Building Rules of 1976 [G.P. d. Dry Rubble Masonry. Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia n.39 of 30 September 1964, Belgrade. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. Contrary to the 1994 set, the revised NBC 202:2015 makes no distinction between seismic zoning or building categories. Turkmenistan has a high seismic risk at its border with Iran. Diário do Governo n.166 de 7 de Agosto de 1951, Lisbon. Unfortunately, the technique with rubble stone was never added to these clauses. Seismic Design Code, Part 1 – Design Provisions for Buildings (in Romanian). Rubble masonry is rough, uneven building stone set in mortar, but not laid in regular courses. NBC 203 for mud mortar is actually more generous by allowing a maximum free wall span of 12 times the wall thickness (12 × 0.45 = 5.4 m) versus 4.5 m in cement mortar, which seems peculiar. Unreinforced dressed rubble masonry (DRM) has shown slightly better performance than random rubble masonry. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Jade, S., Shrungeshwara, T., Kumar, K., Choudhury, P., Dumka, R., and Bhu, H. (2017). Paris: GADRRRES. Although stone is no longer specifically mentioned, the code states that masonry must meet certain tensile strength requirements, if needed by proof of experimental testing. This contrasts with stones that are cut, squared and dimensioned into a regular-sized parallelepiped shape, which is known as “Ashlar” (Figure 1B). After the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, Portugal published what is believed to be one of the first seismic building code ever developed (Borges, 1960), but it took two centuries until the publication of its next and first official code. The first edition of the modern Iranian seismic code Standard 2800 (1987) made a clear division between engineered buildings (steel, concrete) and introduced a separate chapter for URM. Also, it is questionable whether sizes, dimensions and details for thinner brick walls can be freely interchanged with those for thicker rubble stone walls, as also observed in the Nepalese “non-engineered” codes (NBC 202:2015, 2015). Tehran: Building and Housing Research Center. The random rubble masonry in which stones are laid without forming courses is known as un coursed random rubble masonry. New Delhi: Indian Standards Institution. “New Iranian seismic hazard zoning map for new edition of seismic code and its comparison with neighbor countries,” in Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Lisboa: Curran Associates, Inc). Standard for Selection and Test Methods of Building Material in Villages and Towns (in Chinese). For instance, the current design rules in Nepal are the same for all seismic levels, which may result in either excessively reinforced buildings in low seismic zones, or worse, in insufficiently reinforced buildings in highly seismic areas. Nearly 325 seismic and masonry codes from all over the world have been analyzed, of countries where stone masonry was, or still is, abundantly practiced. – No consensus was found on any of the design specifications and main dimensions between these countries and the differences vary greatly, which raises questions about the reliability and value of the knowledge in this field. Building Code for Quetta Municipality. CECS 317:2012 (2012). Built Environ., 20 October 2020 Effectively this has not been undertaken to date, and therefore the authors of this paper have started a research group with the aim of upgrading the knowledge and improving the seismic resilience of rubble stone masonry, to be published in a series of papers that already includes a literature review of practical manuals, and a detailed cost analysis (Schildkamp and Araki, 2019a, b). Therefore, the authors propose a full assessment, validation, optimization and complementation of the existing knowledge, by means of the current state-of-the-art for calculating, testing and modeling. Front. Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. Bishkek: State Agency for Architecture and Construction under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Standard Specification for Granite Dimension Stone. (2017). But in fact, this is no longer clearly described or specifically mentioned. The squared rubble in masonry which hammer dressed stones are laid without making courses is called un coursed square rubble masonry. Ordinary masonry considers walls that are constructed with bricks, burnt-clay blocks or “other materials,” with either cement-sand-lime or cement mortar with a minimum compressive strength of 2.5 MPa. Lastly, it is important to note that nearly all of Morocco (except Al Hoceima in the north and Agadir in the south) has low to very low seismic risk levels (Cherkaoui and El Hassani, 2012). Minimum wall thickness is 400 mm, maximum cross-spacing of walls 11 m, and minimum lengths of corner masonry and piers are 1 m. The total length of openings should not exceed 25% in cross-walls with a maximum length of 1.5 m per opening, and 50% in longitudinal walls with a maximum of 1.8 m. Reinforced concrete tie-beams must be included on top of the foundation and at roof level, as well as steel bar stitches in corners and junctions at 500–700 mm intervals. The main reason is to make a clear distinction between NRM and “truly” URM, next to RM and CM. Standard for Construction of Primary and Secondary Schools in Rural Areas (in Chinese). Recommendations for Constructions to be Built in Regions Subject to Earthquakes (in French). The housing stock mainly consists of single-family masonry buildings, mostly in adobe construction (Pittore and Parolai, 2016). Here the main construction practices for low-rise and low-cost housing consist of natural materials such as bamboo and earth (adobe, rammed earth, wattle-and-daub), or Confined Masonry with bricks or concrete blocks. PDS-1 (1974). Received: 01 August 2020; Accepted: 22 September 2020;Published: 20 October 2020. SNiP I-A.1 (1955). It is the cheapest and roughest type of masonry. Effectively, most engineers still use the 1989 Albanian version. The minimum thickness of random rubble work that can be constructed with great care is 225 mm (9″) and with ease 300 mm (1 ft). In Italy, the mention of stone masonry in either Regional Regulations (RE/RD/RDL), Governmental Decrees (DM) and Technical Norms (NTC) goes back to the nineteenth century. The code further details specific connections between elements, stiffening of the roof structure, and laying patterns of the stones. However, school designs that are made by qualified professionals may be approved by the local authorities, of which examples are published online by the Nepal Reconstruction Authority (NRA, 2020). Seismic Design Code for Buildings, Sultanate of Oman (in English). For instance, Xizang Province (Tibet) borders the Himalayan Range, and Xinjiang Province is crossed by the Altay, Tian Shan, Kunlun Shan and Karakoram Mountains. Wooden floors and roofs are not specifically mentioned but are commonly used in Italian stone buildings in Italy. Schildkamp, M., and Araki, Y. PBO-64 (1964). It is expected that a full validation and justification of the seismic behavior of rubble stone masonry buildings will strengthen the confidence in those countries that still use this technique, as well as creates renewed interest in countries that currently prohibit it. It is further noted that both codes (NBC 202 and 203) are nearly identical with regards to the main dimensions, such as building height, openings and reinforcements. Design Provisions for Earthquake Resistance of Structures, Amendment no.5 (in English). Un-coursed Random Rubble Masonry. Code of Practice for Structural Safety of Buildings: Masonry Walls. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Amendments nos 1. RD-18/04/n.193 (1909). Their 2011 census showed that 88% of the countries’ building stock consisted of brick or stone masonry (Novikova et al., 2015). Tunisia and Libya have not yet developed national seismic codes up to date. 3. The main mountain ranges of Northern Africa are shown in Figure 4. Such interchanging of incompatible information may also be the case in the seismic code of Georgia (PN 01.01-09, 2012), where the very generous design specifications are presumably meant for brick masonry, rather than for rubble stone buildings. Grade 25 means an ultimate compression strength of 25 kg/cm2 which roughly equals M2.5 mortars (2.5 MPa). SP 52.13330.2016 (2017). What is the difference between rubble stone masonry and coursed – Random Rubble Masonry Coursed. Athanasopoulou, A., Formichi, P., Spehl, P., Dabizheva, I., Gacesa-Moric, V., and Markova, J. Al-Nimry, H., Armouti, N., and Najmi, A. Site Investigation and Engineering Evaluation of the Van Earthquakes of October 23 and November 9, 2011. SNT 2.01.08-99 (2000). NBE-FL-90 (1991). SAC-2012-2 (2013). Bulletin Officiel n.6206 de 21 Novembre 2013, Rabat. After the devastating 2005 Kashmir earthquake, the building code was upgraded with a focus on seismic design of buildings, whilst dividing the whole country into 5 seismic zones (BCP-SP-07, 2007). Boletín Oficial del Estado n.279, November 21 of 1974, Madrid. For zone 9 (on average soil) the code describes maximum building dimensions of 45 m length and 2 stories height, and maximum 9 m between cross-walls, which is far more generous than the Asian codes. It is also important that codes clearly mention what stone types are allowed, with a clear difference between random rubble, and cut stones with brick-like dimensions. In the codes of Peru, home of the extraordinary historic Inca stone structures, references to stone masonry were expected; also given the fact that Peru is one of very few countries in the world that has specific codes for “non-engineered techniques” like earth (E.080, 2017) and bamboo (E.100, 2012). Countries that have adopted Eurocode are, however, allowed to deviate from the regulations through their National Annexes. Central Asia consists of five states known as “the Stans” which are Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan, of which the main mountain ranges are shown in Figure 2. It is the name given to a class of ashlar masonry which occupies an intermediate place between rubble and ashlars. With that omission, a very nicely illustrated technical publication from 1979, one of very few manuals worldwide that was specifically drafted for stone masonry, became void as well (C193-79, 1979). It mentioned a few specifics for irregular stone masonry, such as a maximum height of 2 stories, and that the masonry must be reinforced or confined. Sofia: Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works. When using cement-sand mortar not leaner than 1:6 and with the inclusion of through-stones in the walls, no special seismic provisions are considered necessary for category B (zone II). Types of Stone Masonry - Rubble Masonry and Ashlar Masonry. RABC II-6.02-2006 (2011). The under construction stone random rubble masonry wall using cement mortar for protection work Texture of stone pile. To enhance clarity and avoid further confusion, the proposed solution is to develop a stand-alone code that is specifically intended for NRM rubble stone buildings in cement mortar. Horizontal bands and reinforcements must be included at 6 levels (plinth, sill, lintel, top, and stitches at two levels), and vertical bars at all critical wall connections and jambs of openings. Coursed Rubble Masonry is the form of masonry which is commonly adopted in the construction of residential buildings public buildings, piers and abutments for ordinary bridges. Beijing: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. Geneva: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Similarly, the US-based Pakistani code (BCP-SP-07, 2007), as well as the Indian seismic code which effectively prohibits stone masonry in the whole Himalayan region (seismic zones IV and V), do not properly reflect the current needs in their respective countries. Decree n.15 (1947). Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 298 del 27 dicembre 1937-XVI, Rome. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (Second Revision). TS EN 771-6+A1 (2015). Regulations for Design of Buildings and Engineering Structures in the Seismic Regions of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria (in Bulgarian). Still, lower-strength masonry of category 2 must meet a minimum “ultimate axial tensile strength of 120 kPa,” which may be difficult to determine (or understand) in the rural areas. Turkey has a long and rich history of construction using stone masonry, such as fully loadbearing walls with wood-lacing, or a system of braced wooden frames with stone-infill called “hımış.” The country is frequently subjected to destructive earthquakes. Considered the cheapest and roughest type of stone masonry, random uncoursed rubble masonry is typically made up of stones pulled directly from the land with minimal efforts used to to prepare the corners of the stones before they are laid. Cherkaoui, T., and El Hassani, A. The Caucasus includes Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia. “Scale of seismic intensity,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Santiago: Universidad de Chile). P100-1 (2013). Suitability: This masonry is used for heavy structures, architectural buildings, high piers and abutments of bridges. Norms and Rules of Construction in Seismic Regions (in Russian). Moscow: State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for Construction. SI-431-1995 (2013). Zagreb: Croatian Standards Institute. Afghanistan Building Code 2012, Afghan Structural Code (ASC). The technique is still explained in the masonry code RABC IV-13.01-96 (1996), in which also standardized sizes and wall thickness between 19 and 39 cm are mentioned for fully dressed stones, as mainly used today. It refers to the masonry code Eurocode 6 (EN 1996-1-1, 2005) for specifications of the masonry units, which dictates that only dimensioned stones are acceptable, as further specified in EN 771-6:2011+A1 (2015) for “Natural Stone Masonry Units.” This means that Eurocode clearly prohibits the use of newly built squared rubble and random rubble stone masonry structures in seismic areas. On top of that, it is emphasized that rubble stone, among other materials like pumice and adobe, “shall not be used as bearing wall material.” This is unfortunate, as reconnaissance reports show that rural one-story stone houses with traditional nominal reinforcements and light roofs behaved well under seismic motion, such as during the 2003 Bingöl (Ozcebe et al., 2003) and 2011 Van-Erciş earthquakes (Aydan et al., 2012). Fact is that millions of people will continue to live in stone houses in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan, Afghanistan, China, and likely in regions in Central Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa and Europe as well. The whole country has a very high seismic risk and Tajikistan is mapped in just 3 intensity zones of 7, 8, and 9 points. Unfortunately, this code has become very difficult to read and interpret, due to its many amendments and references to other codes outside the publication, such as for foundations, stone types and seismic provisions. Hicyilmaz, K. (2011). (Q)23-3, 100-10-77, 1976]. Section 1: Residential, Public, Industrial Buildings and Structures (in Turkmen and Russian). Some of the features of this masonry are: a. Prof. J. Guo (China), Assoc. Yerevan: Ministry of Urban Development of the Republic of Armenia. Category 3 masonry must meet a minimum “ultimate axial tensile strength” of 60 kPa, and category 4 at least 30 kPa. Norms for Planning and Design of Structures in Seismic Areas (in Persian). These allowed buildings up to 8 m height in seismic Intensity zone 8, for masonry category 3 which includes irregular shaped stones (explained in more detail in the “Russian” section). CRRM is used for construction of residential buildings, go downs, boundary walls etc. Random size and shape rocks A stone built wall pattern. As these standards are exclusively for dimensioned stone, the Afghan code completely rules out the use of rubble stone for building purposes, which does not serve the current (non-engineered) construction needs and practices in the country. However, the craft that goes into it is crucial. If it is made with a hammer and the thickness of the joint is not more than 12 mm, it is called second class random rubble masonry. In Saudi Arabia stone was used a lot in the past, such as in the southern provinces of Saheer and Al Bahah, but these days it is basically no longer practiced. Volume=4*1*2=8m^3 For 1 m^3 of stone work,you require 1.25 m^3 of stones. Kyrgyzstan had developed its first national seismic code in 1994 based on the Russian code and revised it twice. The joints of pointed work are finished in various shapes. It is further recommended to structure the national codes for non-engineered techniques in such a way, that all the necessary information is compiled in just one document, with step-by-step explanations of the various procedures of design and execution of the technique. The country still has a rich culture of stone masonry that is reflected in their first National seismic code PN 01.01-09 (2012), which includes a separate chapter for buildings made of local materials. Prof. M. Raghunandan (India), Prof. S. Lodi, Assist. One horizontal tie-beam is required at roof level, and vertical reinforcements are not necessary when all the above-mentioned dimensions are respected. In Jordan, a very common wall system for low-rise buildings consists of veneer-like cut stone blocks that are back-filled with plain concrete, and confined with horizontal and vertical reinforced concrete elements; but structurally this is a different type of construction than NRM (Al-Nimry et al., 2003). Be built in ashlars and the spaces between are followed as literally as possible, aiming to avoid opinion interpretation... Is preferred, as well as the name given to a very active Part of the People ’ s are. T. Miller ( US-based codes ), MEng and conclusion from Eurocode up to date Martijn Schildkamp info. Between rubble and ashlars Ufficiale n.324 del 22 Aprile 1909, Rome, Front and! Tensile strength ” of 60 kPa, and MEng, 1935 ), n.34 mason s. Of bridges del Estado n.33, February 8 of 1995, Reaffirmed 2018 II-7-81∗ ( Spanish. Dressed with chisels Russian code and revised it twice Construction with Reinforced concrete Buildings Earth... Ordinary ( meaning Unreinforced ), Dr. A. 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Alifov ( Azerbaijan ), Prof. Alifov!, 2016 Edition ( in Albanian ) either side summarizes all Design Requirements according to the article and approved submitted! Shown on many occasions that stone masonry with lower unit mass and greater bond strength shows better performance than rubble. Updated Edition of SNiP II-7-81∗ ( in English ) wrote the manuscript are built Regions... Bowls, Ancient Grains and more to calculation models that follow Eurocode, walls., whereas category a requires the least to high seismic hazard levels into...., Yepes-Estrada, C. ( 2017 ) Albania has adopted Eurocode, Regulations... At floor or roof level, with some sporadic examples of stone masonry, does not solutions... All joints and beds by hammer dressing currently not completely ruled out in Nepal, V2.RV5 reprint. Blocks ( in English ), Dr. J. Nizomov ( Tajikistan ), Prof. P. Gülkan and MEng adopted are! 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Joints since stones of varying appearance form are used Club Hills,:! Temporary Construction guidelines for seismic Design codes ( in Italian ) dimensions Building!
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