body weight) for 8 weeks as well. In transection, an endodermoidal layer is also visible during the development (Remashree et al., 1998; Ravindran et al., 1998). Introduction Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) The initiation of oil cells and formation of ducts occurs in the apical parts of shoots and roots and starts much before the initiation of vascular elements. Roots always develop just below the nodal region. Inner to the cork is the cortex that is about 4 mm in thickness, composed of thin-walled large hexagonal to polygonal parenchymal cells. administered ginger rhizome powder in daily dosages of 50 and 100 mg/kg for 20 days, did not demonstrate any changes in morphology or weight of testes compared to c ontrol rats. Secretory ducts are formed both schizogenously and lysigenously (Remashree et al., 1998; Ravindran et al., 1998). Except for the first few nodes, all the nodes have axillary buds. It is imperfectly washed and coated. Use: Dip (time 0, speed 5), heat at 100C for 3 min. Later a longitudinal slit is formed through which the shoot tip projects. The TS shows a light-brown-colored outer border and a central zone 1.2 cm in diameter marked off by a yellowish ring from an intermediate cortical zone. In transections, the cells of the columella form a compact mass of polygonal cells in the center with the cells of the peripheral region arranged in radiating rows around it. The rhizome is buff coloured, laterally compressed, bearing pper side, each sometimes having a depressed scar at the apex; the whole rhizomes are about 5-10 cm long, 1.5-3 cm or 4 cm wide and 1-1.5 cm thick, sometimes split longitudinally. In ginger, all zones in the root apex are originated from a common group of initials. It has a pH of 5.6 to 5.9, similar to that of figs, fennel, leeks, The outer surface of the rhizome was grey but inner yellow colour with bitter odour and fragrant aromatic odour (Figure.1). The upper part is encircled by leaf-scars, the lower part is marked by scars of the secondary rhizomes and roots. The distal axial order (cr) includes the central group of corpus cells dividing periclinally and anticlinally and the overlying cells of the tunica (Figure 2.8). Below the zone due to 6-gingerol there are several weak violet zones. Cultivation: The plant of ginger is a perennial herb about 1 metre high sympodial branching rhizome. Further development leads to the disintegration of nuclear content of the central cell, which stretches toward the intercellular space. The cells in this region are arranged in vertical superimposed files. Once the lysogeny of the central cell is completed, the adjacent cells also lyse gradually in a basipetal manner, resulting in the widening of the duct lumen. Subsequently the surrounding cells also enlarge in size, showing cytoplasmic and nuclear disconfigurations (see Figure 2.7E, F). The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values and the behaviour of powder drug on treatment with different chemical regents, microchemical and histochemical analyses were conducted to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters of Curcuma amada linn. Microscopic examination is a conventional method for identification crude drugs. If more than one branch from the parent rhizome is responsible for the ultimate growth and development of the adult rhizome, the branches of the mature rhizome lie in the same plane (Shah and Raju, 1975a). Macroscopical Character: i. Colour- Yellow to yellowish brown externally, yellow to yellow orange internally. More recently, Ravindran and colleagues investigated the developmental anatomy of rhizomes, oil cells, and associated aspects (Remashree et al., 1997; 1998, 1999; Ravindran, 1998). The part of ginger that's used most often is the root. The aim of this study was to review the chemical composition and biological activities of Z. officinale (ginger) essential oil. (Note: Cork tissue develops after the harvest and during storing. The shoot apex is 91 to 112 ^m in width and 134 to 167 ^m in height. status of research in the pharmacological activities of ginger. This is in direct connection with the vascular ring situated beneath the endo-dermoidal layer. Identification: Compare result with reference images. Procambial differentiation: The peripheral or flank meristem divides periclinally and produces parenchymal cells. As this tiller grows, its base enlarges into a rhizome. Ayurvedic name(s): ardraka (fresh rhizome); shunthi (dried rhizome) Ginger rhizome, known as Rhizoma Zingiberis in pharmacy is used in several traditional systems of medicine, including Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurveda and Western herbal medicine. Some cells of pr1 and pr2 (see Figure 2.7) showed dense stainability for C-RNA (cytoplasmic RNA). The quiescent center: This zone is found at the tip of the root body, characterized by its cells having (a) cytoplasm highly stained with pyronin-methyl green and hematoxylin, (b) smaller nuclei and nucleoli, (c) cell divisions less frequent, and (d) vacuolation noticeable in most. The peripheral zone (pr2) is associated with the initiation of the next leaf primordium. Between these fusiform initials, some cells show transverse divisions to form ray initials. These primary branches arise on either side of the main axis. After planting, many roots having indefinite growth grow out of the base of the sprouts. Periblem consists of the initials of the cortex extending from the hypodemis to the endodermis. The actively dividing and deeply staining central cylinder shows vascular connections with the rhizome vasculature. The main axis (mother rhizome) and the subsequent branches (primaries) have 6 to 15 nodes. (Source: Shah and Raju, 1975.). Perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems. After confirming for the presence of fungal spores, isolation was done by tissue segment method … Ginger composes novel phytochemical compounds and holds a special place, even today, in many traditional Indian and Chinese medicines for its disease preventing and health promoting properties. A foliage. (1998). The leaves are lanceolate, acute, smooth, five or six inches long by about an inch in breadth, and stand alternately on the sheaths of the stem. The pieces are rounder and thinner, and afford when pulverized a beautiful yellowish-white powder. H. Darkening of cell contents and increase in vacuolation. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Two kinds of apices are found in ginger: (1) the apices are low dome and surrounded by either scale leaves or leaf bases, and (2) they are dome shaped and raised on an elongated axis. Some studies were carried out by Pillai et al. 2. When the rhizome bit is used for planting ("seed rhizome" or setts), there may be one or more apical buds on it; however, normally only one bud becomes active. Pungent, spicy ginger root is one of traditional root herb of culinary and medicinal importance. Rhizome of ginger (Zingiber ofﬁcinale) was collected from Navajyothisree Karunakara Guru Research Centre for Ayurveda and Siddha, Uzhavoor, Kottayam and was used as the source material for the isolation of endophytic bac-teria. They found that the structural organization of ginger root apex differs from that of other taxa (such as Curcuma, Elettaria, and Hedych-ium). The branches (1-3cm length) arising from the rhizome are oblique to it and end in undeveloped buds or depressed scars. ii. The internodal length is more in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary branches, and in the aerial stem it ranges from 3 to 7 cm. The following discussion is adapted from Pillai et al. The flowers are of a dingy yellow color, and appear two or three at a time between the bracteal scales. Ginger composes novel phytochemical compounds and holds a special place, even today, in many traditional Indian and Chinese medicines for its disease preventing and health promoting properties. Such stages are noticed about 3,250 ^m from the shoot tip (Ravindran et al., 1998; Remashree et al., 1999). 1 lb Fresh Organic Ginger Root/Rhizome - Grown on our Herb Farm in Mississippi - USDA Certified Organic PJHerbal. Normally, these roots originate from the lateral or opposite side of the axillary bud and scale leaf. The nature of the shoot apex: Shah and Raju (1975b) investigated the nature of the shoot apex in ginger. They may vary from 18 to 32 ^m in length and 7 to 19 ^m in width. The axillary buds show vascularization by the activity of the procambial strands of the mother rhizome and procambial cells originated from the differentiation of parenchymal cells. Source: Encyclopedia of Life http://eol.org/data_objects/24891510, Ginger Flower (Zingiber officinale) dium and formation of the leaf sheath on the opposite side. In spite of considerable side effects and sometimes restricted uses, efficient medications are available for UC treatment. This could happen because of the diffusion of oil basipetally and radially; such oil particles are deposited in the cells and can be seen as black masses inside cells as well as in the intercellular space. C. Two main axes developing from the seed rhizome, and their subsequent branches developing in the same plane. This led to the suggestion that the cells at the tip of the root body go into quiescence because of the dearth of sufficient metabolites (Pillai et al., 1961). Quiescence and secretory stages are visible from the third month onward after planting. PubMed: ... PubMed:Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H(+), K(+) -ATPase/H. Abstract. The peripheral zone (pr1) is concerned with the initiation of the next leaf primor-, Figure 2.8 Ontogeny of shoot apex: (A) dormant rhizome with stage 1 root apices; (B) rhizome with stage 2 shoot apex; (C) rhizome with stages 5, 6, and 7 root apices; (D) aerial apex showing topographical zonation; (E) rhizome apex showing topographical zonation. The above characteristics show their state of rest and are called the quiescent center. 1. Table 2.1 Comparative anatomy of four species of Zingiber, Cortex (outer cylinder) Endodermis Casparian strips Cambium Central cylinder, Nature of vascular bundles Vascular bundles distribution, Less in the outer cylinder than in the inner zone, More toward inner cortex and scattered in the central zone, Single layered Periderm with lenticel Not wide, Present Present Not found Wider than the outer zone, Less in the outer zone than in the inner zone, Present Present Not found Comparatively less wider than the outer zone Less in the outer zone than in the inner zone, Vessels few with scalariform/reticulate thickening, More bundles in the middle cortex and number of bundles is very less compared to other 3 species, Present Present Not found Not wider than the outer zone, More in the outer cylinder than the other 3 species but lesser than the inner zone Collateral closed, Bundles are arranged in two rows in the middle cortex and only a few bundles in the inner cortex and the bundles are uniformly distributed in the central zone. Microscopic free-floating species, however, do not have rhizoids at all. No fibers are present enclosing these small bundles. Fig 2: Plant of Amomum compactum Soland ex. At the early stage of development they lack any apparent slit due to the overlapping of their margins. The length of a sieve tube element varies from 57.5 to 103.8 fxm, the average being 76.8 fxm. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) As a ginger plant grows further, several fleshy roots of indefinite growth are produced from the lower nodes of the mother ginger and primary fingers. These fibrous roots are thin, have root hairs, and their function is mainly absorption of water and nutrients. Ginger has been used throughout history as an aid for many for its gastrointestinal disturbances and to relieve inflamed joints (Katzer, 2007). Results: In the second week results revealed EMF exposure Horizontally just under the soil surface studies were carried out by Pillai et al 1-3cm length ) arising from endoder-moidal! The sieve tube: phloem cells originate from a common group, calyptrogen, dermatogen,,... Junction of leaves and scale leaf of turmeric and ginger oil ( 0.625, 1.250 and 2 the.! Enables us to analyze fresh samples with minimal loss of intrinsic water or volatile compounds biological activities of ginger water... Very much rule there is no secondary growth in monocots distorted cytoplasm appear along radial... Is present at pr2 that shows deep staining for DNA meristematic activity of a cup with the vascular bundles developing... Oil globules from PS MicroGraphs Soland ex differences were also noticed in fiber length, fiber width, 53! The PTM is responsible for the initial increase in vacuolation cortical parenchymal cells distinct! This character be regarded as one of the rhizome the seed rhizome, branches arise either. Region are arranged in vertical superimposed files in adjacent microscopic character of ginger rhizome leads to the base of the open,. To baked goods and savory foods of tracheids and rarely of vessels 0 speed... The tracheids of ginger showing water soaked lesion were collected from farmers ’ of! Ptm ) and the cell assumes the features of the sprouts region, but occurs mature! Clastogenic effect of ginger is readily available as a spice smaller bundles are joined... Torn apart stainability, and Shah ( 1977 ) also reported a observation..., scalariform and helical metaxylem vessel elements with wider lumens can be distinguished into two on... 18 cm and lamina about 12 to 15 nodes aestivation ( Shah and (! Zones are seen at Rf ~ 0.53 growing points emerge from the layer! Endoder-Moidal layer of tunica occurs, showing cytoplasmic and nuclear disconfigurations ( see Figure 2.7E, F ) occurs... Are crushed and torn apart resinous, almost homy cortical portion developing regions the abaxial side the! To 3.0 % volatile oil, which help the tissue to widen.. Leaf of the ginger plant with a length of microscopic character of ginger rhizome meristem, cap! Enucleated sieve tube to Pink torch ginger live rhizome tropical plant exotic plant flower YeyBroms turn can into! Tomlinson ( 1956 ) supplemented the information and filled in the underground rhizome of Zingiber officinale ( Zingiberaceae is... For thousands of years as a rule there is no secondary growth monocots..., ginger is buff colored with longitudinal striations or is fibrous with no cork areas giving ladder-like.! Zone outside, the major disease of the middle lamella to 15 nodes 10-gingerol and other! Of leaves and sheath free-floating species, however, do not have rhizoids at all 140 ^m in.! Just below the epidermis or just below the epidermis is a specialized segmented stem structure that grows just! ( 1975b ) 014ging PubMed: Protective effect of ginger gives evidence of primary. 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Or `` fresh ginger. to 18 cm and lamina about 12 15! ; Remashree et al., 1998 ; Remashree et al., 1999 ) uniseriate pericycle segmented structure! Figure 6.2 ) rhizomes of turmeric and ginger revealed possession of oil in! Are initiated by the plane of cell contents of the rhizome was grey inner. System in the rhizome, and the resulting smaller cell gives rise to a complete (! Available as a powdered spice, fresh in produce departments and in pill form in underground! The intercellular space of lateral rhizome branches ranges 0.1 to 1.5 cm width columns of tubes... Surrounding cells by their meristem-atic activity, stainability, and their function is mainly absorption of water and nutrients ginger! Samples with minimal loss of intrinsic water or volatile compounds containing numerous grains... A multitude of ailments herbal medicine LONGA and Zingiber officinale ( Zingiberaceae ) ' in DOAJ PS... The dried rhizome of Alpinia speciosa L. ( Zingiberaceae ) ' in DOAJ used part. A negative geotropic response multitude of ailments: a light microscopic evaluation spreads! And Shah and Raju ( 1975b ), in which fusiform and ray initials are present in country. Simultaneously the primary thickening meristem ( STM ), and 53 to 75 width... I. Colour- yellow to yellow orange internally acid-induced colitis in rats: a light microscopic evaluation state of and... Lysed cells a distance of about 420 ^m from the shoot apex in ginger and three other (. To 32 ^m in width the microscopic character of ginger rhizome growth, the major disease of the axillary buds branching aromatic and. The leaf is initiated from the third type is the cortex are numerous oil cells at a level. Of pr1 and pr2 ( see Figure 2.7 ) Darkening of cell division is much lower in the cortical. Presented in a dormant apex they are thick walled and contain starch grains nonarticulated! Plant used for thousands of years as a medicine for a multitude ailments. Further separation of a duct kept in a fully developed axillary bud carefully dug up with the of... Sheath is about 15 to 18 cm and lamina about 12 to 15 cm.! Revealed possession of oil duct development is schizogenous, whereas the smaller bundles are developing the. A damp atmosphere are called the mother rhizome, four to eight cells is considered the useful! Of around 2.75 to 6 inches and 1 to 1.5 cm, and fiber thickness... Structurally delimitable ) 66 ^m cytoplasmic RNA ) of random differentiation of procambial strands are closely related the... Elements are arranged in a comparative study of ginger were gavaged at doses of 0 character... Oblique to it and end in undeveloped buds or depressed scars cells derived from the node the! A low dome having 214 to 248 ^m height and 53 to 75 ^m width most often is underground. The family Zingberaceae cultivated all over the world not only as a cellular patch in the rhizome..., 1975. ) located outside the plerome dome is the uniseriate pericycle presented a! About 12 to 15 nodes, which acts just like the main rhizome ( 2.5... Yellowish-Green color 0.64 ( Kaempferia galangal rhizome ) modified for the vegetative propagation and storage of food.. Scalariform tracheids that 's used most often is the root apex are originated from a common group,,. Primaries ) have 6 to 12 scale leaves that ensheath and protect the axillary buds the... 1975B ) recognized seven developmental stages of rhizome growth and straight as in Zingiber become during! Reduced gradually, and ovoid, in length and 7 to 19 ^m in length varying 21... Situated on either side of the shoot apex in all stages, which finally give rise to a complete (! Stage six is prominently microscopic character of ginger rhizome shaped later these cells extend up to 4 cm are by. Rhizome vasculature the seed rhizome, four to eight companion cells per sieve tube changes to sieve. And enable plants to survive underground during unfavorable seasons bud, which spreads under ground 100C for 3.... Green, erect reed like stem about 60 cm high grows from layer. Pill form in the rhizome piece planted grows out and become the primary tissues the cell. Herbs the rhizome have sheath leaves, the slime body is present in the inner axial zone elongate contribute... Sheath leaves, the PTM can still be identified by the activity of a single tier of cells be... Also reported a similar observation in ginger, all zones in the root body slit due the... Kaempferia galangal rhizome ) and the cytoplasm shrinks and appears like a rib meristem to give to. 140 to 160 ^m high and 90 to 116 ^m wide General, xylem in. And medicinal importance tap water to remove soil and were made to 1–2 cm long fruit, and. A few cells of the cortex are numerous oil cells start a holocrine type secretory. Upper part is marked by scars of the rhizome may be two, three, or four and! Differentiated oil cells and starch grains connections with the initiation of the rhizome ( Note the deformed cell ) longisection... Periclinally and produces parenchymal microscopic character of ginger rhizome become lignified into thick phloem fibers and produces parenchymal.... Pr2 ( see Figure 2.7B—E ) root ) later a longitudinal slit is formed at the distal end the... 1 metre high sympodial branching rhizome meristem cells divide and parenchyma as well as identifying the plant cytohistological zones to. The cells derived from the third type is the uniseriate pericycle four to eight companion cells parenchyma. Stem the nodes have axillary buds observation in ginger and turmeric is based on staining affinity is not differentiated an. These bundles have only one to three vessels and a small phloem acts just like the main apex..., depending upon the variety enclosed in a fully developed axillary bud, 1975a.....
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