[12], Soraya later wrote about herself and Iran: "I was a dunce. [47] In line with this suggestion, Mohammad Reza and Princess Fawzia married. "[186], During the last years of his regime, the Shah's government became more autocratic. [47] Reza Shah did not participate in the ceremony. An image of the imperial crown was included in every official state document and symbol, from the badges of the armed forces to paper money and coinage. [304] The message still rests on the lunar surface today. The one is methodically European, the other savagely Persian". In addition, literacy courses were set up in remote villages by the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces, this initiative being called "Sepāh-e Dānesh" (Persian: سپاه دانش) meaning "Army of Knowledge". [233] The fact that the BBC's journalists tended to be very sympathetic towards the revolution was viewed by most Iranians, including Mohammad Reza, as a sign that Britain was supporting the revolution. On 16 August 1953, the right wing of the Army attacked. [1][3] She had one sibling, a younger brother, Bijan (1937–2001). [33] In 1980, it was agreed that Soraya would visit Mohammad Reza in Cairo, but he died before she could make the trip, which led Milani to comment that Mohammad Reza and Soraya were true "star-crossed lovers". [222] Milani wrote that the Shah was in 1978 "beset with depression, indecision and paralysis, and his indecision led to the immobilisation of the entire system. The liver was speckled with white. Now that you have taken on your shoulders this heavy burden in such dark days, you must know that the price to be paid for the slightest mistake on your part may be our twenty years of service and our family's name. [246] Sadighi remained active in the National Front and had often been harassed by SAVAK, but was willing to serve as prime minister under Mohammad Reza in order to "save" Iran, saying he feared what might come after if the Shah was overthrown. I knew next to nothing of the geography, the legends of my country; nothing of its history, nothing of the Muslim religion". [3], In 1948, Soraya was introduced to the recently divorced Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, by Forough Zafar Bakhtiary, a close relative of Soraya's, via a photograph taken by Goodarz Bakhtiary, in London, per Forough Zafar's request. That evening, Henderson suggested to Ardashir that Mosaddegh not be harmed. Iran Empress. International policies pursued by the Shah in order to increase national income by remarkable increases in the price of oil through his leading role in the Organization of the Oil Producing Countries (OPEC) have been stressed as a major cause for a shift of Western interests and priorities, and for a reduction of their support for him reflected in a critical position of Western politicians and media, especially of the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter regarding the question of human rights in Iran, and in strengthened economic ties between the United States of America and Saudi Arabia in the 1970s. Another factor guiding Mohammad Reza in his foreign policy was his wish for financial stability, which required strong diplomatic ties. The Shah instituted exams for Islamic theologians to become established clerics. [214] On 7 January 1978, an article Iran and Red and Black Colonization was published in the newspaper Ettela'at attacking Ruhollah Khomeini, who was in exile in Iraq at the time; it referred to him as a homosexual, a drug addict, a British spy and claimed he was an Indian, not an Iranian. [146] A high-ranking Romanian defector, Ion Mihai Pacepa, also supported this claim, asserting that he had been the target of various assassination attempts by Soviet agents for many years. [25] The Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuściński observed in his book Shah of Shahs that looking at old photographs of Reza Khan and his son, he was struck by how self-confident and assured Reza Khan appeared in his uniform while Mohammad Reza appeared nervous and jittery in his uniform standing next to his father. [53] When Reza Khan learned of the meeting, he flew into a rage and attacked one of his generals, Ahmad Nakhjavan, striking him with his riding crop, tearing off his medals and was about to personally execute him when his son persuaded him to have the general court-martialed instead. Whether the Panamanian government would have complied is a matter of speculation amongst historians. [183] The American National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger wrote in 1982 that because of the Vietnam War, it was not politically possible in the 1970s for the United States to fight a major war: "There was no possibility of assigning any American forces to the Indian Ocean in the midst of the Vietnam War and its attendant trauma. [114] It was during this period that Mohammad Reza began to embrace the image of a "progressive" Shah, a reformer who would modernise Iran, who attacked in his speeches the "reactionary" and "feudal" social system that was retarding progress, bring about land reform and give women equal rights. [according to whom?] 401–402. She was the second wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlevi, the Shah of Iran. [81][85] The Tudeh were nonetheless blamed and persecuted. Attentively following his life in exile, Mohammad Reza would object to his father's treatment to British at any opportunity. The Shah's only child, his daughter Princess Shahnaz, had married Ardeshir Zahedi, the son of the former Prime Minister, General Fazlollah Zahedi, a man whom Mohammad Reza despised and had dismissed in 1955. [12] Soraya's upbringing had been entirely German and Catholic, which left her with a mixed identity, and made her the object of much distrust in Iran with Muslim clerics saying the Shah should not marry this "half-European girl" who was not raised a Muslim. [94][95][96], Despite the high-level coordination and planning, the coup initially failed, causing the Shah to flee to Baghdad, and then to Rome. [47] During his visit to Egypt, Mohammad Reza was greatly impressed with the grandeur of the Egyptian court as he visited the various palaces built by the Isma'il Pasha, aka "Isma'il the Magnificent", the famously free-spending Khedive of Egypt, and resolved that Iran needed palaces to match those built by Isma'il. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was the last Shah of Iran who reigned from 1941 to 1979 and introduced many reforms to foster economic developments in Iran. [40], In a 1957 study compiled by the U.S. State Department, Mohammad Reza was praised for his "growing maturity" and no longer needing "to seek advice at every turn" as the previous 1951 study had concluded. [129] Following her death in 2001 at the age of 69 in Paris, an auction of the possessions included a three-million-dollar Paris estate, a 22.37-carat diamond ring and a 1958 Rolls-Royce.[130]. Soraya was a regular client of the hairdresser Alexandre Zouari. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Wiki: Salary, Married, Wedding, Spouse, Family Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was the last Shah of Iran, his reign lasted from 1941 until his overthrow in 1979. Abbas Milani, The Persian Sphinx: Amir Abbas Hoveyda and the Riddle of the Iranian Revolution, Mage Publishers, 1 October 2003; Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, p. 389. [185] The British journalist Patrick Brogan wrote that "...the Iraqis celebrated their victory in the usual manner, by executing as many of the rebels as they could lay their hands on. I don't know. [28], After her divorce, Soraya moved to France. [317], Fereydoon Hoveyda, a veteran diplomat who served as the Iranian ambassador to the United Nations (1971–1979), and the brother of Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, the Prime Minister under the Shah (1965–1977) executed after the Islamic revolution, and himself a critic of the régime who died in exile, says that "when it comes to religion and spirituality, many passages of the monarch's and Khomeini's publications are interchangeable", which he perceives as the continuity of the Iranian civilization, where the religion changes but the spirit remains. free nourishment) was implemented. In 1941, Britain and USSR occupied Iran and forced Reza Shah the Great to resign in favor of his son. The sudden cut-off of Iranian support in March 1975 left the Kurds very exposed, causing them to be crushed by Iraq. And I intend to stay there, and to demonstrate that one can achieve a great many things by the use of force, show even that your old socialism is finished. Why should we belittle ourselves with this? The very masculine Mohammad Reza vetoed this idea, saying he did not want Farah to be "Joan of Arc," and it would be too humiliating for him as a man to flee Iran and leave a woman in charge. [61], A general amnesty was issued two days after Mohammad Reza's accession to the throne on 19 September 1941. Their marriage was not a happy one as the Crown Prince was openly unfaithful, often being seen driving around Tehran in one of his expensive cars with one of his girlfriends. Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, pp. The Soviets tried to use a TV remote control to detonate a bomb-laden Volkswagen Beetle; the TV remote failed to function. [215] Khomeini's supporters had brought in audio tapes of his sermons, and Mohammad Reza was angry with one sermon, alleging corruption on his part, and decided to hit back with the article, despite the feeling at the court, SAVAK and Ettela'at editors that the article was an unnecessary provocation that was going to cause trouble. 21–29, in: Grigor, Tallinn "Preserving the Antique Modern: Persepolis '71", pp. [173] Iraq threatened war over the Iranian move, but when on 24 April 1969 an Iranian tanker escorted by Iranian warships sailed down the Shatt al-Arab without paying tolls, Iraq, being the militarily weaker state, did nothing. [311] During the reign of the Shah, women gained the right to freely choose any profession, for example first female Iranian ministers such as Farrokhroo Parsa and judges such as Shirin Ebadi, while Mehrangiz Dowlatshahi became the first female cabinet member and ambassador of Iran. Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi (born on 26 October 1919 - Died on 27 July 1980 (aged 60). [66] An even more significant decision that cast a long shadow was the disastrous and one-sided agreement his father had negotiated with the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) in 1933, one which compromised the country's ability to receive more favourable returns from oil extracted from the country. [12], In August 1953, Soraya followed the Shah when he fled to Rome, and complained the Iranian ambassador to Italy failed to arrange for a place for them to stay while the royal couple were constantly harassed by the paparazzi. These activities alienated Islamic traditionalists and hastened the fall of the Shah. Share. He fled to Cairo, Egypt, with his condition worsening. A coalition of mobs and retired officers close to the Palace executed this coup d'état. [5], In October 1971, Iran marked the anniversary of 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy since the founding of the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great. This experience greatly boosted the Shah's ego, as he felt he was able to impose his will on the world's most powerful nation. [312] In 1973, Mohammad Reza told the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci: A king who does not need to account to anyone for what he says and does is unavoidably doomed to loneliness. [67], My dear son, since the time I resigned in your favour and left my country, my only pleasure has been to witness your sincere service to your country. During his time in Rome, a British diplomat reported about a monarch who spent most of his time in nightclubs with Queen Soraya or his latest mistress: "He hates taking decisions and cannot be relied on to stick to them when taken. [17], On 12 February 1955, the imperial couple left the United States for the United Kingdom on the famous liner, the Queen Mary. [12] Soraya described as Queen having to visit "hospitals, orphanages, charities, the people's quarters with their djoubs open to the sky, with streams of dirt water which supplied their dwellings, having first served washerwoman, tramps and dogs. Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, p. 390. He then sought treatment in Mexico. 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy, 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire, Jimmy Carter's engagement with Ruhollah Khomeini, Background and causes of the Iranian Revolution, rotating member of the UN Security Council, List of titles and honours of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Human rights in the Imperial State of Iran, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, "Historic Personalities of Iran: Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi", "March, 15, 1976 A.D.: Iran Switches To Imperial Calendar", "Torture still scars Iranians 40 years after revolution", "First Party of Iran's 2,500‐Year Celebration", United States Army Center of Military History, "Premier Quits as Iran Speeds Nationalization of Oil Fields", "Message to the Prime Minister of Iran Following the Breakdown of Oil Discussions With Great Britain", "In declassified document, CIA acknowledges role in '53 Iran coup", "Princess Soraya, 69, Shah's Wife Whom He Shed for Lack of Heir", "The 5 Most Precarious US Allies of All Time", America's Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century, Opposition to Mohammad Reza Shah's Regime, "Amnesty International Annual Report 1974-1975", "40 Years Ago Richard Nixon Strengthens Persian Ally", Ten Things the US needs to learn from Iran's Islamic Revolution, "Dr. Michael Debakey Describes the Shah's Surgery and Predicts a Long Life for Him", "The death of an emperor – Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and his political cancer", "A Criminal As The Successor To Khamenei? Indeed, the cost was so sufficiently impressive that the Shah forbade his associates to discuss the actual figures. The Shah's refusal to order his troops to fire on protesters forced him to leave Iran on 17 January 1979. In response, the Shah stated: "How could I go to a place [USA] that had undone me? Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, p. 391. Overall in the centre is a circle depicting Mount Damavand with a rising sun, the symbol of the Pahlavi dynasty. [177] Nixon agreed to support Iranian claims to have the thalweg in the Shatt al-Arab recognised as the border and to generally back Iran in its confrontation with Iraq. [244] In a sign of desperation, the following month Mohammad Reza reached out to the National Front, asking if one of their leaders would be willing to become prime minister. In March 1958, the Shah wept as he announced their divorce. Children with rickets, ravaged women and starving old men, the filth of the alleyways where the houses are no longer houses, where poverty, real poverty prevailed". The young Shah possessed a decidedly more refined temperament, and amongst the unsavory developments that "would haunt him when he was king" were the political disgrace brought by his father on Teymourtash; the dismissal of Foroughi by the mid-1930s; and Ali Akbar Davar's suicide in 1937. During Mohammad Reza's reign, the British owned oil industry was briefly nationalized by Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh until a UK- and U.S.-backed coup d'état deposed Mosaddegh and brought back foreign oil firms under the Consortium Agreement of 1954. [263] [176] The often very anti-American tone of the Iranian press was ignored because Mohammad Reza supported the U.S. in the Vietnam War and likewise the Americans ignored the Shah's efforts to raise oil prices, despite the fact it cost many American consumers more. [107] Mohammad Reza feared that history would repeat itself, remembering how his father was a general who had seized power in a coup d'état in 1921 and deposed the last Qajar shah in 1925, and his major concern in the years 1953–55 was to neutralise Zahedi. [305] Due to his status as the last Shah of Iran, he is often known as simply the Shah. [283] It was anticipated that his stay in the United States would be short; however, surgical complications ensued, which required six weeks of confinement in the hospital before he recovered. Mohammad Reza also held many supplementary titles such as Bozorg Artestaran, a military rank superseding his prior position as captain. [12] Soraya called Perron a "homosexual who detested women, all women" and who "spread poison around the palace as well as our own quarters". The Pahlavi imperial family employed rich heraldry to symbolise their reign and ancient Persian heritage. [63] Mohammed Reza told Willkie that when he was flying he "wanted to stay up indefinitely". After that event, the Shah again sought the support of Egyptian president Anwar El-Sadat, who renewed his offer of permanent asylum in Egypt to the ailing monarch. [141] In 1963 and 1964, nationwide demonstrations against Mohammad Reza's rule took place all over Iran, with the centre of the unrest being the holy city of Qom. [142] Students studying to be imams at Qom were most active in the protests, and Ayatollah Khomeini emerged as one of the leaders, giving sermons calling for the Shah's overthrow. The Prime Minister requested direct control of the army from the Majlis. [197] As an Iranian, Mohammad Reza greatly enjoyed supporting the Greek branch of the House of Glücksburg, knowing the Greeks still celebrated their victories over the Persians in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. [63] The prime minister Ahmad Qavam had advised the Shah against flying with Wilkie, saying he had never met a man with a worse flatulence problem, but the Shah took his chances. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. The king intervened and commuted the sentence to three years,[99] to be followed by life in internal exile. [102], During the following two days, the Communists turned against Mosaddegh. [12] One of Mohammad Reza and Soraya's favorite activities was masked balls, although Soraya complained the Shah always wore a lion costume (the symbol of royalty) while her attempts to appear as Madame de Pompadour were vetoed under grounds this was inappropriate for a queen, and she forced to appear as Joan of Arc instead. [278] As many Republicans were attacking the SALT II treaty as an American give-away to the Soviet Union, Carter was anxious to have the endorsement of a Republican elder statesman like Kissinger to fend off this criticism. [191], From 1973 onward, Mohammad Reza had proclaimed his aim as that of the tamaddon-e-bozorg, the "Great Civilisation," a turning point not only in Iran's history, but also the history of the entire world, a claim that was taken seriously for a time in the West. [134] On 2 May 1961, a teacher's strike involving 50,000 people began in Iran, which Mohammad Reza believed was the work of the CIA. In his "White Revolution" starting in the 1960s, Mohammad Reza made major changes to modernise Iran. [32], After Indovina's death in a plane crash, she spent the remainder of her life in Europe, succumbing to depression, which she outlined in her 1991 memoir, Le Palais des solitudes (The Palace of Loneliness). [194] All of this praise boosted Mohammad Reza's ego, and he went from being a merely narcissistic man to a megalomaniac, believing himself a man chosen by Allah Himself to transform Iran and create the "Great Civilisation. [148] When Farah found out about his affairs in 1973, Alam blamed the prime minister Amir Abbas Hoveyda while the Shah thought it was the KGB. [316] Reza Khan, who was less religious, dismissed these visions as nonsense, and told his son to have more common sense. Then they loved Iranians.[195]. [198] In 1975, both the British Prime Minister Harold Wilson and the French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing made pleading phone calls to Mohammad Reza asking him for loans, which ultimately led the Shah to give a US$1 billion loan to the United Kingdom and another US$1 billion to France. [87] As a child she was tutored and brought up by Frau Mantel, and hence lacked proper knowledge of Iran, as she herself admits in her personal memoirs, stating, "I was a dunce—I knew next to nothing of the geography, the legends of my country, nothing of its history, nothing of Muslim religion. [325] In 1958, using funds from inherited crown estates, Mohammad Reza established the Pahlavi Foundation which functioned as a tax-exempt charity and held all his assets, including 830 villages spanning a total area of 2.5 million hectares. [169] Mohammad Reza supported the Yemeni royalists against republican forces in the Yemen Civil War (1962–70) and assisted the sultan of Oman in putting down a rebellion in Dhofar (1971). [162] During the French trip, Queen Farah, who shared her husband's love of French culture and language, befriended the culture minister André Malraux, who arranged for the exchange of cultural artifacts between French and Iranian museums and art galleries, a policy that remained a key component of Iran's cultural diplomacy until 1979. [157] The message was further reinforced the next day when the "Parade of Persian History" was performed at Persepolis when 6,000 soldiers dressed in the uniforms of every dynasty from the Achaemenids to the Pahlavis marched past Mohammad Reza in a grand parade that many contemporaries remarked "surpassed in sheer spectacle the most florid celluloid imaginations of Hollywood epics". [14] On 19 August 1953, Soraya remembered how a glum Mohammad Reza was talking about moving to the United States when he received a telegram announcing that Mosaddegh had been overthrown, leading him to shout with joy. "Queen of Iran Accepts Divorce As Sacrifice", Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Earlier Marriages Ended in Divorce. [183], The Americans initially rejected Mohammad Reza's suggestion that they join him in supporting the Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga fighting for independence on the grounds that an independent Kurdistan would inspire the Turkish Kurds to rebel, and they had no interest in antagonising the NATO member Turkey. [19] The Shah told Soraya that "a Zahedi could not continue the dynasty of the Pahlavis", and that she had to give him a son so the House of Pahlavi could continue. [335] Mohammad Reza was also known for his interest in cars and had a personal collection of 140 classic and sports cars including a Mercedes-Benz 500K Autobahn cruiser, one of only six ever made. [22] A tough, fierce, and very ambitious soldier who became the first Persian to command the elite Russian-trained Cossack Brigade, Reza Khan liked to kick subordinates in the groin who failed to follow his orders; growing up under his shadow, Mohammad Reza was a deeply scarred and insecure boy who lacked self-confidence. [26] In the 1930s, Reza Khan was an outspoken admirer of Adolf Hitler, though this was less because of any racism and anti-Semitism on his part, but rather because Reza Khan saw Hitler as someone much like himself, namely a man who had risen from an undistinguished background to become a notable leader of the 20th century. Dark brown, almost black, shining, at times hard, at times sad or gentle, they exuded charm and reflected his soul". [18], Later in 1955, the Shah resumed the persecution of the Baháʼí Faith minority, razing their temples. [34][35] Upon learning of her death, her younger brother, Bijan, sadly commented, "After her, I don't have anyone to talk to. They failed dismally and the Shah decided to leave the country. During his 38-year rule, Iran spent billions on industry, education, health, and armed forces and enjoyed economic growth rates exceeding the United States, England, and France. ", After some initial denials, the Shah agreed to travel to America for treatment. On the second day of the invasion with the Soviet air force bombing Tehran, Mohammad Reza was shocked to see the Iranian military simply collapse, with thousands of terrified officers and men all over Tehran taking off their uniforms in order to desert and run away despite the fact they had not seen combat yet. [105], Mohammad Reza returned to power, but never extended the elite status of the court to the technocrats and intellectuals who emerged from Iranian and Western universities. While studying in Paris, she met Reza, who was on an official visit to the city. [40], Since her death, several women have come forward claiming to be her illegitimate daughter, reportedly born in 1962. [49] In his 1961 book Mission For My Country, Mohammad Reza wrote the "only happy light moment" of his entire marriage to Fawzia was the birth of his daughter. Shia Islam has no tradition of describing Shahs being favoured with messages from God, very few Shahs had ever claimed that their dreams were divine messages, and most people in the West laughed and snickered at Mohammad Reza's claim that his dreams were messages from God. [145], According to Vladimir Kuzichkin, a former KGB officer who defected to MI-6, the Soviet Union also targeted the Shah. The Shah, a fervent nationalist, responded "Iran is Iran." [181] After 1969, a process of "reverse leverage" set in, when Mohammad Reza began to dictate to the United States as the Americans needed him more than he needed the Americans. "[194] In 1976, a pulp novel by Alan Williams was published in the United States under the title A Bullet for the Shah: All They Had To Do Was Kill the World's Most Powerful Man, whose sub-title reveals much about how the American people viewed the Shah at the time (the original British title was the more prosaic Shah-Mak).[193]. [157] A brochure put up by the Celebration Committee explicitly stated the message: "Only when change is extremely rapid, and the past ten years have proved to be so, does the past attain new and unsuspected values worth cultivating", going on to say the celebrations were held because "Iran has began to feel confident of its modernization". Later years and death. Ghotbzadeh requested that the CIA kill the Shah while he was in Panama. They roamed Tehran, raising red flags and pulling down statues of Reza Shah. The Eisenhower Administration believed its actions were justified for strategic reasons; but the coup was clearly a setback for Iran's political development. [125] On 24 July 1959, Mohammad Reza gave Israel de facto recognition by allowing an Israeli trade office to be opened in Tehran that functioned as a de facto embassy, a move that offended many in the Islamic world. Fearing for his life, the Shah left Panama delaying further surgery. They were enraged that the referendum approving of the White Revolution in 1963 allowed women to vote, with the Ayatollah Khomeini saying in his sermons that the fate of Iran should never be allowed to be decided by women. [10] His father was born in Alasht, Savadkuh County, Māzandarān Province. [39] Mohammad Reza lost his virginity to a maid who worked at Le Rosey in 1935.

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